Low Back Pain

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Low Back Pain is simple back pain that is linked to the way in which the bones, ligaments and muscles of the back work together. This is usually pain that :

  • Occur as result of lifting, bending or straining
  • Comes and go
  • Moster often affect the lower back
  • Does not usually signify any permanent damage

Some low back pain is linked to nerve root pain. This is much less common than simple back pain and account for about 5% of back pain cases. nerve root pain usually caused by compression of the nerves as it leaves the spinal cord. herniated disc (commonly, but incorrectly, called ‘silpped disc”) are one cause of nerve root pain.

The estimated prevalence of LBP in the United States is 15% to 20% annually, and up to 85% of the population experiences clinically significant LBP at some point in their lives. LBP prevalence in TEPI, as per research result in 2007 are ;

  • Men is higher than women (12.2 % : 1.8%),
  • Older age (>40 years old) is higher than young age ( 11% : 7%),
  • marital status is higher than non married ( 17% : 1%),
  • Normal‐weight : overweight : obese are 2% : 5% : 11%.

Symptoms

The symptom of the low back pain can vary hugely from one person to the next. They include :

  • aching
  • stiffness
  • numbness
  • weakness
  • Tingling ( pins and needles ).

Coughing or sneezing can often make back pain much worse by causing the muscles of the back to go into painful spasm. The pain may start in the back but may travel elsewhere. It often goes into the buttocks, but may go further down the leg and even into the foot.

Low back pain is simple back pain, pain that is linked tothe way in which the bones, ligaments and muscles of theback work together.

This is usually pain that:

  • Occur as result of lifting, bending or straining.
  • Comes and go
  • Most often affect the lower back
  • Does not usually signify any permanent damage.

Some low back pain is linked to nerve root pain. This is much less common than simple back pain and account for about 5 % of back pain cases. Nerve root pain is usually caused by compression of the nerves as it leaves the spinal cord. Herniated disc (commonly, but incorrectly, called ‘slipped discs’) are one cause of nerve root pain.

Causes

There are many reasons why you might experience back pain. Your pain might be a consequence of everyday life (such as bad posture whilst driving or when sitting at your desk ) or less often, it might be as a result of some underlying disease. The majority of cases of back pain are linked to simple mechanical problems, less 5 % signify nerve root pain, and less than 2 % reflect serious disease affected the spinal.

The low back pain can be felt as a result of ( most likely first ) :

  • sprain ( an injury to the ligament of a joint )
  • injury such as a car or sport accident
  • muscle damage ( e.g. from over‐exercising )
  • fracture caused by underlying bone disease ( e.g. osteoporosis )
  • underlying inflammatory disease ( e.g. rheumatoid arthritis )
  • degenerative disease ( e.g. fibromyalgia ).
  • cancer ( e.g. prostate and pancreatic cancer )
  • infection ( e.g. bladder infection and spinal infection like tuberculosis ).

Simple back pain can be worsened, or triggered by a number of factors including :

  • poor posture
  • a lack of exercise
  • standing or bending down for long periods
  • sitting in a chair that doesn’t provide enough back support
  • sleeping on an unsuitable without a break
  • being overweight
  • being pregnant
  • lifting, carrying, pushing or pulling loads that are too heavy.

TIPS FOR HEALTHIER BACK

Following any period of prolonged inactivity, begin a program of regular low‐impact exercises. Speed walking, swimming, or stationary bike riding 30 minutes a day can increase muscle strength and flexibility. Ask your physician or orthopaedist for a list of low‐impact exercises appropriate for your age and designed to strengthen lower back and abdominal muscles.

  • Always stretch before exercise or other strenuous physical activity.
  • Don’t slouch when standing or sitting. When standing, keep your weight balanced on your feet. Your back supports weight most easily when curvature is reduced.
  • At home or work, make sure your work surface is at a comfortable height for you.
  • Sit in a chair with good lumbar support and proper position and height for the task. Keep your
  • shoulders back. Switch sitting positions often and periodically walk around the office or gently stretch
  • muscles to relieve tension. A pillow or rolled‐up towel placed behind the small of your back can
  • provide some lumbar support. If you must sit for a long period of time, rest your feet on a low stool or
  • a stack of books.
  • Wear comfortable, low‐heeled shoes.
  • Sleep on your side to reduce any curve in your spine. Always sleep on a firm surface.
  • Ask for help when transferring an ill or injured family member from a reclining to a sitting position or
  • when moving the patient from a chair to a bed.
  • Don’t try to lift objects too heavy for you. Lift with your knees, pull in your stomach muscles, and keep
  • your head down and in line with your straight back. Keep the object close to your body. Do not twist
  • when lifting.
  • Maintain proper nutrition and diet to reduce and prevent excessive weight, especially weight around
  • the waistline that taxes lower back muscles. A diet with sufficient daily intake of calcium, phosphorus,
  • and vitamin D helps to promote new bone growth

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